Basic idea of nonequilibrium Greens functions
(Kadanoff-Baym equations)
- Aim: give a consistent description of electron relaxation and energy renormalization
- Expectation: due to correlations and scattering, the electron spectrum is modified,
"renormalized", giving rise to a finite life time of the electron states
- In contrast: free electrons are characterized by an undamped electron DeBroglie wave
(see schematic figure below)
- To see the Kadanoff-Baym equations,
click here
Spectral function of correlated electrons in the two-time plane
- Shown is the real part of A(t,t') for a constant momentum value
- This is the result of full solution of the Kadanoff-Baym equations
- One clearly sees the decay away from the diagonal, which is the result of e-e-scattering
(and other scattering mechanisms)
Electron spectral function (Schematic overview)
- Shown is the real part of the spectral function together with its absolute value (dots)
- Left column: Spectral function versus difference time tau=t-t'
- Right column: Spectral function versus frequency (energy), i.e. after Fourier transform with
respect to tau
- First line: Spectral function of free (quasi-) particles - it is sharply localized
in energy, i.e. it has zero width, corresponding to infinite lifetime
- Second line: interacting particles - heuristic account of correlations and finite
life time effects by introduction of an exponential damping factor gamma. In frequency space
(right fig.), this gives rise to a Lorentzian function. (These factors can be derived from
the electron selfenergy: gamma arises from its imaginary part and Delta is related to the real part)
- The Lorentzian has fundamental problems at large frequencies: it decays too slowly. This
leads to violation of energy conservation. This can be "cured" by correcting the behavior on
the time-diagonal.
- Third line: Spectral function from a full Kadanoff-Baym calculation. Notice the
zero slope of A at the time diagonal. This translates into a fast decay at large frequency.
Picture from M. Bonitz,
Quantum Kinetic Theory
Kadanoff-Baym equations |
See solutions: time evolution of the Greens functions
KB equations for laser excited electrons in semiconductors
Here is a Collection of recent review articles on nonequilibrium Greens functions
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